परमाणु “सेनापति” की छत्रछाया में

परमाणु “सेनापति” की छत्रछाया में

परमाणु "सेनापति" की छत्रछाया में

 
© फोटो: ru.wikipedia.org/Zmey Kaa Kobra/cc-by-sa 3.0

आज से पच्चीस साल पहले सोवियत अंतरमहाद्वीपीय बैलिस्टिक मिसाइल “आर-36एम2”, जिसे “वॉएवोदा” यानी “सेनापति” भी कहा जाता है, को तैनात किया गया था।

इस वर्ग की मिसाइलें तब सबसे विनाशकारी थीं और ये मिसाइलें किसी भी मिसाइल प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली को नश्ट कर सकती थीं। “शीतयुद्ध” के दौरान “वॉएवोदा” मिसाइलें बहुत मशहूर हुईं। परमाणु प्रतिरोध की नीति के क्षेत्र में इस मिसाइल प्रणाली की भूमिका कैसी थी और ऐसी मिसाइलों के स्थान पर अब किस प्रकार की मिसाइलें तैनात की जाएँगी? “रेडियो रूस” के इस सवाल का जवाब कुछ विशेषज्ञों द्वारा दिया गया है।

नाटो गठबंधन के देशों में “आर-36एम2” वर्ग की इस रूसी मिसाइल को एक बड़ा ही डरावना नाम, “शैतान” दिया गया था। सोवियत संघ और अमरीका के बीच राजनीतिक टकराव और हथियारों की दौड़ के दौरान ऐसे कई “शैतानों” और “राक्षसों” ने जन्म लिया था। महासागरों की गहराइयों में परमाणु मिसाइलों से लैस परमाणु पनडुब्बियों की भीड़ लगी हुई थी। अटलांटिक महासागर के दोनों किनारों पर सचमुच में मिसाइलों की बाड़ें लग गई थीं। हथियारों की यह होड़ धीरे-धीरे अंतरिक्ष तक भी पहुँच गई थी।

इस प्रसंग में रूस के सामरिक मिसाइल बलों के पूर्व कार्यालय-प्रमुख विक्टर एसिन ने “रेडियो रूस” को बताया है कि “स्टार वार्स” यानी “तारा युद्ध” की यह अमरीकी अवधारणा दूसरों की आँखों में धूल झोंकने की एक कोशिश मात्र थी, लेकिन इस कोशिश का सोवियत संघ द्वारा एक बड़ा ही ठोस जवाब दिया गया था। इस सिलसिले में विक्टर एसिन ने कहा-

सोवियत संघ ने अपनी मिसाइल प्रणाली “वॉएवोदा” स्थापित करने का निर्णय अमरीकी राष्ट्रपति रोनाल्ड रीगन द्वारा “रणनीतिक सुरक्षा पहल” यानी तथाकथित “तारा युद्ध” की तैयारी करने की घोषणा के बाद ही लिया गया था। इस अमरीकी पहल के अंतर्गत एक मिसाइल प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली की विशाल पैमाने पर तैनाती की जानी थी। अमरीका की इसी मिसाइल प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली को तोड़ने के लिए सोवियत संघ को अपनी मिसाइल-तोड़क प्रणाली का निर्माण करने की आवश्यकता थी। तब ही “वॉएवोदा” मिसाइल प्रणाली का निर्माण किया गया था।

“वॉएवोदा” मिसाइल प्रणाली का मुख्य लाभ यह है कि इस वर्ग की मिसाइलें अपने साथ बड़ी संख्या में परमाणु बम लेकर उड़ सकती हैं और दुश्मन के इलाके पर मार कर सकती हैं। वे किसी भी प्रकार की मिसाइल प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली को नष्ट कर सकती हैं। इस संबंध में विक्टर एसिन ने कहा-

इस मिसाइल का सबसे बड़ा लाभ यह है कि यह लगभग नौ टन वज़न के परमाणु बम अपने साथ लेकर उड़ सकती है। यह वज़न उस वज़न से दोगुना है जिसे अमरीका की सबसे शक्तिशाली मिसाइल एम.एक्स. लेकर उड़ सकती है। इसकी बदौलत इस रूसी मिसाइल को कई प्रमाणु बमों और मिसाइल प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली को नष्ट करनेवाले उपकरणों से लैस किया जा सकता है। इसके अलावा, यह मिसाइल इतनी मज़बूत है कि शत्रु की मिसाइल प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली इसे कोई अधिक क्षति नहीं पहुँचा सकती है।

“वॉएवोदा” मिसाइल प्रणाली के इन लाभों के साथ-साथ इसमें कुछ त्रुटियां भी पाई जाती हैं। इसकी सबसे बड़ी त्रुटि यह है कि यह मिसाइल प्रणाली मोबाइल नहीं है। इसे किसी एक निश्चित स्थान पर ही तैनात किया जा सकता है। वैसे भी आजकल इतने विनाशकारी हथियारों की ज़रूरत नहीं रही है। इस संबंध में रूस के सामाजिक-राजनीतिक अध्ययन केंद्र के निदेशक व्लादिमीर येवसियेव ने कहा-

 अब ऐसी भारी मिसाइलों की ज़रूरत नहीं रही है। आजकल हलकी मिसाइलें बनाई जा रही हैं जोकि परमाणु हथियारों में कटौती की नीति से मेल खाती हैं। बेशक, इन मिसाइलों पर बड़ी संख्या में परमाणु बम फिट नहीं किए जाएंगे।

अब “वॉएवोदा” मिसाइल प्रणाली को धीरे-धीरे उसकी ड्यूटी से हटाया जा रहा है। लेकिन इसका यह मतलब नहीं है कि रूस के पास भारी अंतरमहाद्वीपीय बैलिस्टिक मिसाइलें नहीं होंगी। जैसा कि व्लादिमीर येवसियेव ने बताया है, भविष्य में “वॉएवोदा” के स्थान पर नई मिसाइल प्रणाली “सर्मात” को तौनात किया जाएगा।
और पढ़ें: http://hindi.ruvr.ru/2013_07_30/parmanu-senapati-chatrachaya/

मंगल पर कभी था जीवन का अस्तित्व : नासा

वाशिंगटन: अमेरिकी अंतरिक्ष एजेंसी नासा का कहना है कि क्यूरोसिटी रोवर द्वारा मंगल की सतह की चट्टानों से एकत्र किए गए नमूनों के विश्लेषण से संकेत मिले हैं कि पूर्वकाल में मंगल पर सूक्ष्मजीवों का अस्तित्व रहा होगा।

नासा के मंगल अन्वेषण कार्यक्रम के प्रमुख वैज्ञानिक माइकल मेयर ने संवाददाताओं से कहा, इस अभियान के लिए एक मूल प्रश्न यह था कि क्या मंगल पर कभी जीवन के अनुकूल वातावरण था? अब तक मिली जानकारी के अनुसार, इसका जवाब है ‘हां’।’’ क्यूरोसिटी रोवर ने पिछले माह मंगल पर गेल क्रेटर में बहने वाली पुरानी धारा के पास की एक चट्टान में छेद करके, जो चूर्ण निकाला था, उसमें वैज्ञानिकों ने सल्फर, नाइट्रोजन, हाइड्रोजन, ऑक्सीजन, फास्फोरस और कार्बन की पहचान की है। ये कुछ ऐसे रासायनिक तत्व हैं, जो जीवन के लिए बहुत जरूरी हैं।

मेरीलैंड स्थित नासा के गोड्डार्ड स्पेस फ्लाइट सेंटर के प्रमुख जांचकर्ता पॉल महाफी ने कहा, इन नमूनों से रासायनिक तत्वों की जो शृंखला हमें मिली है, वह वाकई प्रभावशाली है। इससे सल्फेट और सल्फाइड आदि के संकेत भी मिलते हैं, जो सूक्ष्मजीवों के लिए रासायनिक ऊर्जा के संभव स्रोत हैं।

क्योरोसिटी नामक छह पहियों वाला रोबोट सात वैज्ञानिक उपकरणों से लैस है। यह अपनी तरह का ऐसा पहला आधुनिक वाहन है, जिसे किसी अन्य ग्रह पर भेजा गया है।

इन आंकड़ों से पता चलता है कि रोवर येलो नाइफ खाड़ी नामक जिस इलाके में खोज कर रहा था, वह एक पुरानी नदी व्यवस्था या रुक-रुक कर बहने वाली एक झील का अंत था। इसमें सूक्ष्मजीवों के जीवन के लिए जरूरी रासायनिक ऊर्जा और अन्य अनुकूल स्थितियां संभवत: रही होंगी। इसकी चट्टान बारीक मिट्टी से बनी है, जिसमें मिट्टी के खनिज, सल्फेट खनिज और अन्य रासायनिक तत्व हैं।

नासा ने कहा कि यह आद्र्र वातावरण मंगल के कुछ अन्य वातावरणों की तरह बहुत ऑक्सीकारक, अम्लीय या बहुत लवणीय नहीं था।

नासा के वैज्ञानिकों ने कहा कि इन मिट्टी के खनिजों की उत्पत्ति ताजे पानी की ओलीवीन जैसे आग्नेय खनिजों के साथ अभिक्रिया के फलस्वरूप हुई है, जो कि आज भी वहां की मिट्टी में मौजूद है।

मिट्टी के साथ ही कैल्सियम सल्फेट की उत्पत्ति से जाहिर होता है कि मिट्टी हल्की क्षारीय या उदासीन है।

नासा के अनुसार, वैज्ञानिक इस बात से हैरान हैं कि उन्हें ऑक्सीजन युक्त, थोड़ा कम ऑक्सीजन युक्त और बिना ऑक्सीजन वाले रसायनों का मिश्रण मिल गया। ये रसायन पृथ्वी पर कई सूक्ष्मजीवों को जीवन के लिए जरूरी उर्जा उपलब्ध कराते हैं।

New NASA Mission

New NASA Mission to Help Us Learn How to Mine Asteroids
 
Aug. 8, 2013
 

Over the last hundred years, the human population has exploded from about 1.5 billion to more than seven billion, driving an ever-increasing demand for resources. To satisfy civilization’s appetite, communities have expanded recycling efforts while mine operators must explore forbidding frontiers to seek out new deposits, opening mines miles underground or even at the bottom of the ocean.

Asteroids could one day be a vast new source of scarce material if the financial and technological obstacles can be overcome. Asteroids are lumps of metals, rock and dust, sometimes laced with ices and tar, which are the cosmic “leftovers” from the solar system’s formation about 4.5 billion years ago. There are hundreds of thousands of them, ranging in size from a few yards to hundreds of miles across. Small asteroids are much more numerous than large ones, but even a little, house-sized asteroid should contain metals possibly worth millions of dollars.

 

Artist's concept of NASA's OSIRIS-REx spaecraft
This is an artist’s concept of NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft preparing to take a sample from asteroid Bennu.
Image Credit: 
NASA/Goddard/Chris Meaney
 

 

There are different kinds of asteroids, and they are grouped into three classes from their spectral type – a classification based on an analysis of the light reflected off of their surfaces. Dark, carbon-rich, “C-type” asteroids have high abundances of water bound up as hydrated clay minerals. Although these asteroids currently have little economic value since water is so abundant on Earth, they will be extremely important if we decide we want to expand the human presence throughout the solar system.

“Water is a critical life-support item for a spacefaring civilization, and it takes a lot of energy to launch it into space,” says Dante Lauretta of the University of Arizona, Tucson, principal investigator for NASA’s OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission. “With launch costs currently thousands of dollars per pound, you want to use water already available in space to reduce mission costs. The other thing you can do with water is break it apart into its constituent hydrogen and oxygen, and that becomes rocket fuel, so you could have fuel depots out there where you’re mining these asteroids. The other thing C-type asteroids have is organic material – they have a lot of organic carbon, phosphorous and other key elements for fertilizer to grow your food,” said Lauretta.

 

Photos of three asteroids
These photos show the relative size of three asteroids that have been imaged at close range by spacecraft. Mathilde (37 x 29 miles) (left) was taken by the NEAR spacecraft on June 27, 1997. Images of the asteroids Gaspra (middle) and Ida (right) were taken by the Galileo spacecraft in 1991 and 1993, respectively.
Image Credit: 
NASA/JPL/NEAR and Galileo missions
 

 

Somewhat brighter asteroids have a stony composition. These “S-type” asteroids have very little water but are currently more economically relevant since they contain a significant fraction of metal, mostly iron, nickel and cobalt.

“However, there are a fair amount of trace elements that are economically valuable like gold, platinum and rhodium,” said Lauretta. “A small, 10-meter (yard) S-type asteroid contains about 1,433,000 pounds (650,000 kg) of metal, with about 110 pounds (50 kg) in the form of rare metals like platinum and gold,” said Lauretta.

There are rare asteroids with about ten times more metal in them, the metallic or “M-class” asteroids, according to Lauretta.

However, it currently costs hundreds of millions to billions of dollars to build and launch a space mission, so innovations that would make these costs fall dramatically are needed before it is profitable to mine asteroids for the value of their metals alone.

Another obstacle is simply our lack of experience with mapping and analyzing the resources in asteroids to extract material from them. This critical experience will be gained with NASA’s asteroid sample return mission, OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security and Regolith Explorer).

 

 
This is an artist’s concept showing how NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will explore asteroid Bennu, take a sample, and return it to Earth for analysis.
Image Credit: 
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
 

 

The spacecraft, scheduled for launch in September 2016, will arrive at the asteroid Bennu in October 2018 and study it in detail before returning with a sample of material from its surface. Its primary purpose is scientific — since asteroids are relics from our solar system’s formation, analysis of the sample is expected to give insights into how the planets formed and life originated. Also, the spacecraft will accurately measure how the tiny push from sunlight alters the orbit of Bennu, helping astronomers better predict this influence on the path of any asteroid that presents an impact risk to Earth.

“However, the mission will develop important technologies for asteroid exploration that will benefit anyone interested in exploring or mining asteroids, whether it’s NASA or a private company,” said Lauretta.

The mission is designed to have triple redundancy for its sample acquisition – if the first attempt fails, the team can try two more times to get at least 60 grams (about two ounces) of sample, and up to 2,000 grams (about 4.4 pounds). To make the most of these opportunities, the spacecraft is equipped with instruments that map the asteroid’s composition from orbit, allowing the team to select the best sample sites well in advance of the first attempt.

A good way to determine an asteroid’s composition from a distance is to analyze its light. All materials reflect, emit, and absorb light at specific colors or frequencies depending on the properties of the material. The make-up of a material can be identified using special instruments called spectrometers which measure the intensity of light at different frequencies.

Materials emit and absorb light over an extremely wide range of frequencies, well beyond what our eyes can see, so OSIRIS-REx has three spectrometers that together cover this range in the X-ray, visible and infrared.

The OSIRIS-REx Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (OVIRS) detects visible and near-infrared light. Infrared light is invisible to the human eye, but we can feel it as heat. This spectrometer will be able to detect organic compounds in addition to a variety of minerals and other chemicals. Organic compounds contain carbon and are of interest because some are used by life. The team hopes to sample a site rich in organic molecules for clues to the organic chemistry in the early solar system that led to the emergence of life on Earth. “OVIRS will help map the distribution of organic molecules on the asteroid and guide sample site selection based on that information,” said Lauretta.

The OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) goes deeper into the infrared range and will detect minerals on the surface of Bennu and measure the temperature of the asteroid. In particular, clay minerals found by OTES will provide a map of the water-rich material on the asteroid. Just as beach sand heats up quickly in the sun and cools off rapidly at night while the pavement stays hot long after sunset, the rate at which the surface warms in the day and cools at night will be used to measure the surface properties.

The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer will look at the faint X-ray glow of the sunlit surface to map the distribution and abundance of elements, such as iron, silicon, sulfur, and magnesium.

OVIRS and OTES also will work together to determine the influence of sunlight on Bennu’s orbit. This influence, called the Yarkovsky effect, happens when the surface of an asteroid absorbs sunlight and later radiates it as heat while the asteroid rotates, giving the asteroid a tiny push, which adds up over time to significantly change its trajectory.

OVIRS will reveal how much sunlight is reflected from Bennu. Since what’s not reflected must be absorbed, the team can use this measurement to calculate how much sunlight is being stored by the asteroid to be later radiated as heat. OTES will measure this heat and provide a map to show which areas on Bennu radiate the most, giving the direction of the Yarkovsky push.

The light detected by the spectrometers doesn’t penetrate far, so these instruments can identify composition only in a thin layer near the surface, not more than about one-half of a millimeter deep (about a hundredth of an inch). It’s likely that Bennu’s composition changes deeper in its interior. The mission’s sampling mechanism will go deeper by blowing nitrogen gas to agitate material near the surface, forcing it to flow into a collection chamber.

“We’ll get down five or six centimeters (around two inches) with this technique,” says Lauretta. Although still relatively shallow, it is about 200 times deeper than with spectrometry alone.

“Also, the spectroscopists will tell us that they know the composition of this material, but at the end of the day, we get to test that,” adds Lauretta.  “We’ll bring a sample back to the lab and say, alright you guys said it was made out of this, we found it was made out of that, did you get it right or not?”

Other instruments will help refine the composition maps from the spectrometers. The smallest features in the OVIRS chemistry maps will be about 20 meters (yards) across, while the OTES mineralogy features are even bigger, at about 40 meters across. Color maps from the cameras will have much higher resolution, less than a meter, so any variations in color over a feature in the chemistry and mineralogy maps from the spectrometers gives a clue that perhaps the composition changes a bit in those areas, according to Lauretta.

Similar to radar, the laser altimeter instrument will bounce laser light off the surface of Bennu to build a three-dimensional map of its shape and surface features. Measuring how brightly the surface reflects the laser light can give a clue to the type of material present; for example, a really bright reflection could indicate they hit a metallic spot, according to Lauretta.

Although developed for science, the instruments on OSIRIS-REx are similar to those necessary for an asteroid mining mission.

“The mission will be a proof-of-concept – can you go to an asteroid, get material, and bring it back to Earth,” said Lauretta. “Next, people will have to industrialize it so that the economy works out, so for the recoverable value in any given asteroid, you’re spending half that to bring it back.”

“The only thing you might want to add is the ability to do a quick chemical analysis of material on board the spacecraft, so you can say, ‘The platinum concentration is X,’ for example,” says Lauretta. “We couldn’t afford it – that’s a pretty sporty option. Other than that, for anyone who’s thinking about an asteroid mission, this is the set of instruments that you want to fly.”

The University of Arizona, Tucson, is the principal investigator institution which leads the mission. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., provides overall mission management, systems engineering, and safety and mission assurance. Lockheed Martin Space Systems is building the spacecraft. OSIRIS-REx is the third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers Program.

Atomic Bomb

I. The History of the Atomic Bomb

A. Development (The Manhattan Project)

Nuclear explosionOn August 2nd 1939, just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote to then President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Einstein and several other scientists told Roosevelt of efforts in Nazi Germany to purify U-235 with which might in turn be used to build an atomic bomb. It was shortly thereafter that the United States Government began the serious undertaking known only then as the Manhattan Project. Simply put, the Manhattan Project was committed to expedient research and production that would produce a viable atomic bomb.

The most complicated issue to be addressed was the production of ample amounts of ‘enriched’ uranium to sustain a chain reaction. At the time, Uranium-235 was very hard to extract. In fact, the ratio of conversion from Uranium ore to Uranium metal is 500:1. An additional drawback is that the 1 part of Uranium that is finally refined from the ore consists of over 99% Uranium-238, which is practically useless for an atomic bomb. To make it even more difficult, U-235 and U-238 are precisely similar in their chemical makeup. This proved to be as much of a challenge as separating a solution of sucrose from a solution of glucose. No ordinary chemical extraction could separate the two isotopes. Only mechanical methods could effectively separate U-235 from U-238. Several scientists at Columbia University managed to solve this dilemma.

A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was constructed at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. H.C. Urey, along with his associates and colleagues at Columbia University, devised a system that worked on the principle of gaseous diffusion. Following this process, Ernest O. Lawrence (inventor of the Cyclotron) at the University of California in Berkeley implemented a process involving magnetic separation of the two isotopes.

Following the first two processes, a gas centrifuge was used to further separate the lighter U-235 from the heavier non-fissionable U-238 by their mass. Once all of these procedures had been completed, all that needed to be done was to put to the test the entire concept behind atomic fission. [For more information on these procedures of refining Uranium, see Section 3.]

Over the course of six years, ranging from 1939 to 1945, more than 2 billion dollars were spent on the Manhattan Project. The formulas for refining Uranium and putting together a working bomb were created and seen to their logical ends by some of the greatest minds of our time. Among these people who unleashed the power of the atomic bomb was J. Robert Oppenheimer.

Oppenheimer was the major force behind the Manhattan Project. He literally ran the show and saw to it that all of the great minds working on this project made their brainstorms work. He oversaw the entire project from its conception to its completion.

Finally the day came when all at Los Alamos would find out whether or not The Gadget (code-named as such during its development) was either going to be the colossal dud of the century or perhaps end the war. It all came down to a fateful morning of midsummer, 1945.

At 5:29:45 (Mountain War Time) on July 16th, 1945, in a white blaze that stretched from the basin of the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico to the still-dark skies, The Gadget ushered in the Atomic Age. The light of the explosion then turned orange as the atomic fireball began shooting upwards at 360 feet per second, reddening and pulsing as it cooled. The characteristic mushroom cloud of radioactive vapor materialized at 30,000 feet. Beneath the cloud, all that remained of the soil at the blast site were fragments of jade green radioactive glass. …All of this caused by the heat of the reaction.

The brilliant light from the detonation pierced the early morning skies with such intensity that residents from a faraway neighboring community would swear that the sun came up twice that day. Even more astonishing is that a blind girl saw the flash 120 miles away.

Upon witnessing the explosion, reactions among the people who created it were mixed. Isidor Rabi felt that the equilibrium in nature had been upset — as if humankind had become a threat to the world it inhabited. J. Robert Oppenheimer, though ecstatic about the success of the project, quoted a remembered fragment from Bhagavad Gita. “I am become Death,” he said, “the destroyer of worlds.” Ken Bainbridge, the test director, told Oppenheimer, “Now we’re all sons of bitches.”

Several participants, shortly after viewing the results, signed petitions against loosing the monster they had created, but their protests fell on deaf ears. As it later turned out, the Jornada del Muerto of New Mexico was not the last site on planet Earth to experience an atomic explosion.

 

B. Detonation

1. Hiroshima

 

Little Boy and Fat Man
Little Boy Fat Man

As many know, atomic bombs have been used only twice in warfare. The first and foremost blast site of the atomic bomb is Hiroshima. A Uranium bomb (which weighed in at over 4 & 1/2 tons) nicknamed “Little Boy” was dropped on Hiroshima August 6th, 1945. The Aioi Bridge, one of 81 bridges connecting the seven-branched delta of the Ota River, was the aiming point of the bomb. Ground Zero was set at 1,980 feet. At 0815 hours, the bomb was dropped from the Enola Gay. It missed by only 800 feet. At 0816 hours, in the flash of an instant, 66,000 people were killed and 69,000 people were injured by a 10 kiloton atomic explosion.

Hiroshima, August 6th, 1945The point of total vaporization from the blast measured one half of a mile in diameter. Total destruction ranged at one mile in diameter. Severe blast damage carried as far as two miles in diameter. At two and a half miles, everything flammable in the area burned. The remaining area of the blast zone was riddled with serious blazes that stretched out to the final edge at a little over three miles in diameter. [See diagram below for blast ranges from the atomic blast.]

2. Nagasaki

On August 9th 1945, Nagasaki fell to the same treatment as Hiroshima. Only this time, a Plutonium bomb nicknamed “Fat Man” was dropped on the city. Even though the “Fat Man” missed by over a mile and a half, it still leveled nearly half the city. Nagasaki’s population dropped in one split-second from 422,000 to 383,000. 39,000 were killed, over 25,000 were injured. That blast was less than 10 kilotons as well. Estimates from physicists who have studied each atomic explosion state that the bombs that were used had utilized only 1/10th of 1 percent of their respective explosive capabilities.

3. Byproducts of atomic detonations

While the mere explosion from an atomic bomb is deadly enough, its destructive ability doesn’t stop there. Atomic fallout creates another hazard as well. The rain that follows any atomic detonation is laden with radioactive particles. Many survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki blasts succumbed to radiation poisoning due to this occurance.

The atomic detonation also has the hidden lethal surprise of affecting the future generations of those who live through it. Leukemia is among the greatest of afflictions that are passed on to the offspring of survivors.

While the main purpose behind the atomic bomb is obvious, there are many by-products that have been brought into consideration in the use of all weapons atomic. With one small atomic bomb, a massive area’s communications, travel and machinery will grind to a dead halt due to the EMP (Electro-Magnetic Pulse) that is radiated from a high-altitude atomic detonation. These high-level detonations are hardly lethal, yet they deliver a serious enough EMP to scramble any and all things electronic ranging from copper wires all the way up to a computer’s CPU within a 50 mile radius.

At one time, during the early days of The Atomic Age, it was a popular notion that one day atomic bombs would one day be used in mining operations and perhaps aid in the construction of another Panama Canal. Needless to say, it never came about. Instead, the military applications of atomic destruction increased. Atomic tests off of the Bikini Atoll and several other sites were common up until the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was introduced. Photos of nuclear test sites here in the United States can be obtained through the Freedom of Information Act.

 

4. Breakdown of the Atomic Bomb’s Blast Zones

 

                                       .
                         .                           .


              .                        .                        .
                             .                   .
               [5]                    [4]                    [5]
                                       .
                      .        .               .        .

       .                  .                         .                  .

                 .          [3]        _        [3]          .
                      .           .   [2]   .           .
                                .     _._     .
                               .    .~   ~.    .
    .          . [4] .         .[2].  [1]  .[2].         . [4] .          .
                               .    .     .    .
                                .    ~-.-~    .
                      .           .   [2]   .           .
                 .          [3]        -        [3]          .

       .                  .                         .                  .

                      .        ~               ~        .
                                       ~
               [5]           .        [4]        .           [5]
                                       .
              .                                                 .


                         .                           .
                                       .
[1] Vaporization Point
Everything is vaporized by the atomic blast. 98% fatalities. Overpress=25 psi. Wind velocity=320 mph.
[2] Total Destruction
All structures above ground are destroyed. 90% fatalities. Overpress=17 psi. Wind velocity=290 mph.
[3] Severe Blast Damage
Factories and other large-scale building collapse. Severe damage to highway bridges. Rivers sometimes flow countercurrent. 65% fatalities, 30% injured. Overpress=9 psi. Wind velocity=260 mph.
[4] Severe Heat Damage
Everything flammable burns. People in the area suffocate due to the fact that most available oxygen is consumed by the fires. 50% fatalities, 45% injured. Overpress=6 psi. Wind velocity=140 mph.
[5] Severe Fire & Wind Damage
Residency structures are severely damaged. People are blown around. 2nd and 3rd-degree burns suffered by most survivors. 15% dead. 50% injured. Overpress=3 psi. Wind velocity=98 mph.

 

Blast Zone Radii
[3 different bomb types]

  ______________________   ______________________   ______________________
 |                      | |                      | |                      |
 |    -[10 KILOTONS]-   | |     -[1 MEGATON]-    | |    -[20 MEGATONS]-   |
 |----------------------| |----------------------| |----------------------|
 | Airburst - 1,980 ft  | | Airburst - 8,000 ft  | | Airburst - 17,500 ft |
 |______________________| |______________________| |______________________|
 |                      | |                      | |                      |
 |  [1]  0.5 miles      | |  [1]  2.5 miles      | |  [1]  8.75 miles     |
 |  [2]  1 mile         | |  [2]  3.75 miles     | |  [2]  14 miles       |
 |  [3]  1.75 miles     | |  [3]  6.5 miles      | |  [3]  27 miles       |
 |  [4]  2.5 miles      | |  [4]  7.75 miles     | |  [4]  31 miles       |
 |  [5]  3 miles        | |  [5]  10 miles       | |  [5]  35 miles       |
 |                      | |                      | |                      |
 |______________________| |______________________| |______________________|

II. Nuclear Fission/Nuclear Fusion

A. Fission (A-Bomb) & Fusion (H-Bomb)

atomic explosionThere are two types of atomic explosions that can be facilitated by U-235: fission and fusion. Fission, simply put, is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus splits into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable mass, with the evolution of approximately 100 million to several hundred million volts of energy. [See comment.] This energy is expelled explosively and violently in the atomic bomb. A fusion reaction is invariably started with a fission reaction, but unlike the fission reaction, the fusion (Hydrogen) bomb derives its power from the fusing of nuclei of various hydrogen isotopes in the formation of helium nuclei. Being that the bomb in this section is strictly atomic, the other aspects of the Hydrogen Bomb will be set aside for now.

The massive power behind the reaction in an atomic bomb arises from the forces that hold the atom together. These forces are akin to, but not quite the same as, magnetism.

Atoms are comprised of three sub-atomic particles. Protons and neutrons cluster together to form the nucleus (central mass) of the atom while the electrons orbit the nucleus much like planets around a sun. It is these particles that determine the stability of the atom.

Most natural elements have very stable atoms which are impossible to split except by bombardment by particle accelerators. For all practical purposes, the one true element whose atoms can be split comparatively easily is the metal Uranium. Uranium’s atoms are unusually large, henceforth, it is hard for them to hold together firmly. This makes Uranium-235 an exceptional candidate for nuclear fission.

Uranium is a heavy metal, heavier than gold, and not only does it have the largest atoms of any natural element, the atoms that comprise Uranium have far more neutrons than protons. This does not enhance their capacity to split, but it does have an important bearing on their capacity to facilitate an explosion.

There are two isotopes of Uranium. Natural Uranium consists mostly of isotope U-238, which has 92 protons and 146 neutrons (92+146=238). Mixed with this isotope, one will find a 0.6% accumulation of U-235, which has only 143 neutrons. This isotope, unlike U-238, has atoms that can be split, thus it is termed “fissionable” and useful in making atomic bombs. Being that U-238 is neutron-heavy, it reflects neutrons, rather than absorbing them like its brother isotope, U-235. [See comment.]

U-238 serves no function in an atomic reaction, but its properties provide an excellent shield for the U-235 in a constructed bomb as a neutron reflector. This helps prevent an accidental chain reaction between the larger U-235 mass and its ‘bullet’ counterpart within the bomb. Also note that while U-238 cannot facilitate a chain-reaction, it can be neutron-saturated to produce Plutonium (Pu-239). Plutonium is fissionable and can be used in place of Uranium-235 {albeit, with a different model of detonator} in an atomic bomb.

Both isotopes of Uranium are naturally radioactive. Their bulky atoms disintegrate over a period of time. Given enough time (over 100,000 years or more) Uranium will eventually lose so many particles that it will turn into the metal Lead. However, the process of decay can be accelerated in what is known as a chain reaction. Instead of disintegrating slowly, the atoms are forcibly split by neutrons forcing their way into the nuclei. A U-235 atom is so unstable that a blow from a single neutron is enough to split it and henceforth bring on a chain reaction (by releasing further neutrons). This can happen even when a (comparatively small) critical mass is present. When this chain reaction occurs, the Uranium atom splits into two smaller atoms of different elements, such as Barium and Krypton.

When a U-235 atom splits, it gives off energy in the form of heat and Gamma radiation, which is the most powerful form of radioactivity and the most lethal. [See comment.] When this reaction occurs, the split atom will also give off two or three of its ‘spare’ neutrons, which are not needed to make either Barium or Krypton. These spare neutrons fly out with sufficient force to split other atoms they come in contact with. [See chart below.] In theory, it is necessary to split only one U-235 atom, and the neutrons from this will split other atoms, which will split mor … so on and so forth. This progression does not take place arithmetically, but geometrically. All of this will happen within a millionth of a second.

The minimum amount to start a chain reaction as described above is known as SuperCritical Mass. The actual mass needed to facilitate this chain reaction depends upon the purity of the material, but for pure U-235, it is 110 pounds (50 kilograms), but no Uranium is ever quite pure, so in reality more will be needed. [See comment.]

 

Diagram of a Chain Reaction

                        [1] - Incoming Neutron
                        [2] - Uranium-235
                        [3] - Uranium-236
                        [4] - Barium Atom
                        [5] - Krypton Atom


                                       |
                                       |
                                       |
                                       |
    [1]------------------------------> o

                                    . o o .
                                   . o_0_o . <-----------------------[2]
                                   . o 0 o .
                                    . o o .

                                       |
                                      \|/
                                       ~

                                 . o o. .o o .
    [3]-----------------------> . o_0_o"o_0_o .
                                . o 0 o~o 0 o .
                                 . o o.".o o .
                                       |
                                  /    |    \
                                |/_    |    _\|
                                ~~     |     ~~
                                       |
                           o o         |        o o
    [4]-----------------> o_0_o        |       o_0_o <---------------[5]
                          o~0~o        |       o~0~o
                           o o )       |      ( o o
                              /        o       \
                             /        [1]       \
                            /                    \
                           /                      \
                          /                        \
                         o [1]                  [1] o
                 . o o .            . o o .            . o o .
                . o_0_o .          . o_0_o .          . o_0_o .
                . o 0 o .  <-[2]-> . o 0 o . <-[2]->  . o 0 o .
                 . o o .            . o o .            . o o .

                  /                    |                    \
                |/_                   \|/                   _\|
                ~~                     ~                     ~~

      . o o. .o o .              . o o. .o o .              . o o. .o o .
     . o_0_o"o_0_o .            . o_0_o"o_0_o .            . o_0_o"o_0_o .
     . o 0 o~o 0 o . <--[3]-->  . o 0 o~o 0 o .  <--[3]--> . o 0 o~o 0 o .
      . o o.".o o .              . o o.".o o .              . o o.".o o .
        .   |   .                  .   |   .                  .   |   .
       /    |    \                /    |    \                /    |    \
       :    |    :                :    |    :                :    |    :
       :    |    :                :    |    :                :    |    :
      \:/   |   \:/              \:/   |   \:/              \:/   |   \:/
       ~    |    ~                ~    |    ~                ~    |    ~
  [4] o o   |   o o [5]      [4] o o   |   o o [5]      [4] o o   |   o o [5]
     o_0_o  |  o_0_o            o_0_o  |  o_0_o            o_0_o  |  o_0_o
     o~0~o  |  o~0~o            o~0~o  |  o~0~o            o~0~o  |  o~0~o
      o o ) | ( o o              o o ) | ( o o              o o ) | ( o o
         /  |  \                    /  |  \                    /  |  \
        /   |   \                  /   |   \                  /   |   \
       /    |    \                /    |    \                /    |    \
      /     |     \              /     |     \              /     |     \
     /      o      \            /      o      \            /      o      \
    /      [1]      \          /      [1]      \          /      [1]      \
   o                 o        o                 o        o                 o
  [1]               [1]      [1]               [1]      [1]               [1]

 

B. U-235, U-238 and Plutonium

Uranium is not the only material used for making atomic bombs. Another material is the element Plutonium, in its isotope Pu-239. Plutonium is not found naturally (except in minute traces) and is always made from Uranium. The only way to produce Plutonium from Uranium is to process U-238 through a nuclear reactor. After a period of time, the intense radioactivity causes the metal to pick up extra particles, so that more and more of its atoms turn into Plutonium.

Plutonium will not start a fast chain reaction by itself, but this difficulty is overcome by having a neutron source, a highly radioactive material that gives off neutrons faster than the Plutonium itself. In certain types of bombs, a mixture of the elements Beryllium and Polonium is used to bring about this reaction. Only a small piece is needed. The material is not fissionable in and of itself, but merely acts as a catalyst to the greater reaction.

 


III. The Mechanism of The Bomb

A. Altimeter

An ordinary aircraft altimeter uses a type of Aneroid Barometer which measures the changes in air pressure at different heights. However, changes in air pressure due to the weather can adversely affect the altimeter’s readings. It is far more favorable to use a radar (or radio) altimeter for enhanced accuracy when the bomb reaches Ground Zero.

While Frequency Modulated-Continuous Wave (FM CW) is more complicated, the accuracy of it far surpasses any other type of altimeter. Like simple pulse systems, signals are emitted from a radar aerial (the bomb), bounced off the ground and received back at the bomb’s altimeter. This pulse system applies to the more advanced altimeter system, only the signal is continuous and centered around a high frequency such as 4200 MHz. This signal is arranged to steadily increase at 200 MHz per interval before dropping back to its original frequency.

As the descent of the bomb begins, the altimeter transmitter will send out a pulse starting at 4200 MHz. By the time that pulse has returned, the altimeter transmitter will be emitting a higher frequency. The difference depends on how long the pulse has taken to do the return journey. When these two frequencies are mixed electronically, a new frequency (the difference between the two) emerges. The value of this new frequency is measured by the built-in microchips. This value is directly proportional to the distance travelled by the original pulse, so it can be used to give the actual height.

In practice, a typical FM CW radar today would sweep 120 times per second. Its range would be up to 10,000 feet (3000 m) over land and 20,000 feet (6000 m) over sea, since sound reflections from water surfaces are clearer.

The accuracy of these altimeters is within 5 feet (1.5 m) for the higher ranges. Being that the ideal airburst for the atomic bomb is usually set for 1,980 feet, this error factor is not of enormous concern.

The high cost of these radar-type altimeters has prevented their use in commercial applications, but the decreasing cost of electronic components should make them competitive with barometric types before too long.

B. Air Pressure Detonator

The air pressure detonator can be a very complex mechanism, but for all practical purposes, a simpler model can be used. At high altitudes, the air is of lesser pressure. As the altitude drops, the air pressure increases. A simple piece of very thin magnetized metal can be used as an air pressure detonator. All that is needed is for the strip of metal to have a bubble of extremely thin metal forged in the center and have it placed directly underneath the electrical contact which will trigger the conventional explosive detonation. Before the strip is set in place, the bubble is pushed in so that it will be inverted.

Once the air pressure has achieved the desired level, the magnetic bubble will snap back into its original position and strike the contact, thus completing the circuit and setting off the explosive(s).

C. Detonating Head(s)

The detonating head (or heads, depending on whether a Uranium or Plutonium bomb is being used as a model) that is seated in the conventional explosive charge(s) is similar to the standard-issue blasting cap. It merely serves as a catalyst to bring about a greater explosion. Calibration of this device is essential. Too small of a detonating head will only cause a colossal dud that will be doubly dangerous since someone’s got to disarm and re-fit the bomb with another detonating head. (An added measure of discomfort comes from the knowledge that the conventional explosive may have detonated with insufficient force to weld the radioactive metals. This will cause a supercritical mass that could go off at any time.) The detonating head will receive an electric charge from either the air pressure detonator or the radar altimeter’s coordinating detonator, depending on what type of system is used. The Du Pont company makes rather excellent blasting caps that can be easily modified to suit the required specifications.

D. Conventional Explosive Charge(s)

This explosive is used to introduce (and weld) the lesser amount of Uranium to the greater amount within the bomb’s housing. [The amount of pressure needed to bring this about is unknown and possibly classified by the United States Government for reasons of National Security.]

Plastic explosives work best in this situation since they can be manipulated to enable both a Uranium bomb and a Plutonium bomb to detonate. One very good explosive is Urea Nitrate. The directions on how to make Urea Nitrate are as follows:

 

Ingredients

     [1]  1 cup concentrated solution of uric acid (C5 H4 N4 O3)
     [2]  1/3 cup of nitric acid
     [3]  4 heat-resistant glass containers
     [4]  4 filters (such as coffee filters)

Filter the concentrated solution of uric acid through a filter to remove impurities. Slowly add 1/3 cup of nitric acid to the solution and let the mixture stand for one hour. Filter again as before. This time the Urea Nitrate crystals will collect on the filter. Wash the crystals by pouring water over them while they are in the filter. Remove the crystals from the filter and allow 16 hours for them to dry. This explosive needs a blasting cap to detonate.

It may be necessary to make a quantity larger than the aforementioned list calls for to bring about an explosion great enough to cause the Uranium (or Plutonium) sections to weld together on impact.

E. Neutron Deflector

The neutron deflector is comprised solely of Uranium-238. Not only is U-238 non-fissionable, it also has the unique ability to reflect neutrons back to their source.

The U-238 neutron deflector can serve two purposes. In a Uranium bomb, the neutron deflector serves as a safeguard to keep an accidental supercritical mass from occurring by bouncing the stray neutrons from the ‘bullet’ counterpart of the Uranium mass away from the greater mass below it (and vice-versa). The neutron deflector in a Plutonium bomb actually helps the wedges of Plutonium retain their neutrons by ‘reflecting’ the stray particles back into the center of the assembly.

F. Uranium & Plutonium

Uranium-235 is very difficult to extract. In fact, for every 25,000 tons of Uranium ore that is mined from the earth, only 50 tons of Uranium metal can be refined from that, and 99.3% of that metal is U-238 which is too stable to be used as an active agent in an atomic detonation. To make matters even more complicated, no ordinary chemical extraction can separate the two isotopes since both U-235 and U-238 possess precisely identical chemical characteristics. The only methods that can effectively separate U-235 from U-238 are mechanical methods.

U-235 is slightly, but only slightly, lighter than its counterpart, U-238. A system of gaseous diffusion is used to begin the separating process between the two isotopes. In this system, Uranium is combined with fluorine to form Uranium Hexafluoride gas. This mixture is then propelled by low-pressure pumps through a series of extremely fine porous barriers. Because the U-235 atoms are lighter and thus propelled faster than the U-238 atoms, they can penetrate the barriers more rapidly. As a result, the U-235’s concentration becomes successively greater as it passed through each barrier. After passing through several thousand barriers, the Uranium Hexafluoride contains a relatively high concentration of U-235 — 2% pure Uranium-235 in the case of reactor fuel – and if pushed further could (theoretically) yield up to 95% pure Uranium-235 for use in an atomic bomb.

Once the process of gaseous diffusion is finished, the Uranium must be refined once again. Magnetic separation of the extract from the previous enriching process is then implemented to further refine the Uranium. This involves electrically charging Uranium Tetrachloride gas and directing it past a weak electromagnet. Since the lighter U-235 particles in the gas stream are less affected by the magnetic pull, they can be gradually separated from the flow.

Following the first two procedures, a third enrichment process is then applied to the extract from the second process. In this procedure, a gas centrifuge is brought into action to further separate the lighter U-235 from its heavier counter-isotope. Centrifugal force separates the two isotopes of Uranium by their mass. [See comment.] Once all of these procedures have been completed, all that need be done is to place the properly molded components of Uranium-235 inside a warhead that will facilitate an atomic detonation.

Supercritical mass for Uranium-235 is defined as 110 lbs (50 kgs) of pure Uranium.

Depending on the refining process(es) used when purifying the U-235 for use, along with the design of the warhead mechanism and the altitude at which it detonates, the explosive force of the A-bomb can range anywhere from 1 kiloton (which equals 1,000 tons of TNT) to 20 megatons (which equals 20 million tons of TNT — which, by the way, is the smallest strategic nuclear warhead we possess today. {Point in fact — One Trident Nuclear Submarine carries as much destructive power as 25 World War II’s}).

While Uranium is an ideally fissionable material, it is not the only one. Plutonium can be used in an atomic bomb as well. By leaving U-238 inside an atomic reactor for an extended period of time, the U-238 picks up extra particles (neutrons especially) and gradually is transformed into the element Plutonium.

Plutonium is fissionable, but not as easily fissionable as Uranium. While Uranium can be detonated by a simple 2-part gun-type device, Plutonium must be detonated by a more complex 32-part implosion chamber along with a stronger conventional explosive, a greater striking velocity and a simultaneous triggering mechanism for the conventional explosive packs. Along with all of these requirements comes the additional task of introducing a fine mixture of Beryllium and Polonium to this metal while all of these actions are occurring.

Supercritical mass for Plutonium is defined as 35.2 lbs (16 kgs). This amount needed for a supercritical mass can be reduced to a smaller quantity of 22 lbs (10 kgs) by surrounding the Plutonium with a U-238 casing.

To illustrate the vast difference between a Uranium gun-type detonator and a Plutonium implosion detonator, here is a quick rundown.

 

[1] Uranium Detonator
Comprised of 2 parts. Larger mass is spherical and concave. Smaller mass is precisely the size and shape of the ‘missing’ section of the larger mass. Upon detonation of conventional explosive, the smaller mass is violently injected and welded to the larger mass. Supercritical mass is reached, chain reaction follows in one millionth of a second.

 

[2] Plutonium Detonator
Comprised of 32 individual 45-degree pie-shaped sections of Plutonium surrounding a Beryllium/Polonium mixture. These 32 sections together form a sphere. All of these sections must have the precisely equal mass (and shape) of the others. The shape of the detonator resembles a soccerball. Upon detonation of conventional explosives, all 32 sections must merge with the B/P mixture within 1 ten-millionths of a second.

 

 ____________________________________________________________________________
                                       |
            [Uranium Detonator]        |         [Plutonium Detonator]
 ______________________________________|_____________________________________
                _____                  |
               |    :|                 |               . [2] .
               |    :|                 |           . ~   \_/   ~ .
               | [2]:|                 |        ..        .        ..
               |    :|                 |      [2]|        .        |[2]
               |   .:|                 |     . ~~~ .      .      . ~~~ .
               '...::'                 |    .        .    .    .        .
               _ ~~~ _                 |   .           .  ~  .           .
            . '|     |':..             | [2]\.  .  .  .  [1]  .  .  .  ./[2]
         .     |     | ':::.           |   ./          . ~~~ .          \.
               |     |   ':::          |   .         .    :    .         .
       .       |     |    ::::         |    .      .      .      .      .
               | [1] |    ::|::        |     . ___        .        ___ .
      .        '.   .'   ,::||:        |      [2]|        .        |[2]
                 ~~~     ::|||:        |        .'        _        '.
       ..        [2]   .::|||:'        |           .     / \     .
        ::...       ..::||||:'         |              ~ -[2]- ~
         :::::::::::::||||::'          |
          ''::::||||||||:''            |
              '':::::''                |
                                       |
                                       |
                                       |
                                       |
       [1] = Collision Point           |      [1] = Collision Point
       [2] - Uranium Section(s)        |      [2] = Plutonium Section(s)
                                       |
                                       |
 ______________________________________|_____________________________________

G. Lead Shield

The lead shield’s only purpose is to prevent the inherent radioactivity of the bomb’s payload from interfering with the other mechanisms of the bomb. The neutron flux of the bomb’s payload is strong enough to short circuit the internal circuitry and cause an accidental or premature detonation.

H. Fuses

The fuses are implemented as another safeguard to prevent an accidental detonation of both the conventional explosives and the nuclear payload. These fuses are set near the surface of the ‘nose’ of the bomb so that they can be installed easily when the bomb is ready to be launched. The fuses should be installed only shortly before the bomb is launched. To affix them before it is time could result in an accident of catastrophic proportions.

 


IV. Diagrams of the Bombs

A. The Uranium Bomb

Gravity Bomb Model

 

                        [1] - Tail Cone
                        [2] - Stabilizing Tail Fins
                        [3] - Air Pressure Detonator
                        [4] - Air Inlet Tube(s)
                        [5] - Altimeter/Pressure Sensors
                        [6] - Lead Shield Container
                        [7] - Detonating Head
                        [8] - Conventional Explosive Charge
                        [9] - Packing
                       [10] - Uranium (U-235) [Plutonium (See other diagram)]
                       [11] - Neutron Deflector (U-238)
                       [12] - Telemetry Monitoring Probes
                       [13] - Receptacle for U-235 upon detonation
                              to facilitate supercritical mass.
                       [14] - Fuses (inserted to arm bomb)

                                      /\
                                     /  \ <---------------------------[1]
                                    /    \
                  _________________/______\_________________
                 | :      ||:      ~      ~               : |
     [2]-------> | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :______||:_____________________________: |
                 |/_______||/______________________________\|
                  \       ~\       |              |         /
                   \       |\      |              |        /
                    \      | \     |              |       /
                     \     |  \    |              |      /
                      \    |___\   |______________|     /
                       \  |     \ |~               \   /
                        \|_______\|_________________\_/
                        |_____________________________|
                        /                             \
                       /       _________________       \
                      /      _/                 \_      \
                     /    __/                     \__    \
                    /    /                           \    \
                   /__ _/                             \_ __\
     [3]_______________________________                 \ _|
                   / /                 \                 \ \
                  / /                  \/                 \ \
                 / /              ___________              \ \
                | /            __/___________\__            \ |
                | |_  ___     /=================\     ___  _| |
     [4]---------> _||___|====|[[[[[[[|||]]]]]]]|====|___||_ <--------[4]
                | |           |-----------------|           | |
                | |           |o=o=o=o=o=o=o=o=o| <-------------------[5]
                | |            \_______________/            | |
                | |__                |: :|                __| |
                | |  \______________ |: :| ______________/  | |
                | | ________________\|: :|/________________ | |
                | |/            |::::|: :|::::|            \| |
     [6]----------------------> |::::|: :|::::| <---------------------[6]
                | |             |::::|: :|::::|             | |
                | |             |::==|: :|== <------------------------[9]
                | |             |::__\: :/__::|             | |
                | |             |::  ~: :~  ::|             | |
     [7]----------------------------> \_/   ::|             | |
                | |~\________/~\|::    ~    ::|/~\________/~| |
                | |            ||::         <-------------------------[8]
                | |_/~~~~~~~~\_/|::_ _ _ _ _::|\_/~~~~~~~~\_| |
     [9]-------------------------->_=_=_=_=_::|             | |
                | |             :::._______.:::             | |
                | |            .:::|       |:::..           | |
                | |        ..:::::'|       |':::::..        | |
     [6]---------------->.::::::' ||       || '::::::.<---------------[6]
                | |    .::::::' | ||       || | '::::::.    | |
               /| |  .::::::'   | ||       || |   '::::::.  | |
              | | | .:::::'     | ||    <-----------------------------[10]
              | | |.:::::'      | ||       || |      ':::::.| |
              | | ||::::'       | |'.     .'| |       '::::|| |
    [11]___________________________  ''~''  __________________________[11]
              : | | \::            \       /            ::/ | |
             |  | |  \:_________|_|\/__ __\/|_|_________:/  | |
             /  | |   |  __________~___:___~__________  |   | |
            ||  | |   | |          |:::::::|          | |   | |
    [12]   /|:  | |   | |          |:::::::|          | |   | |
  |~~~~~  / |:  | |   | |          |:::::::|          | |   | |
  |----> / /|:  | |   | |          |:::::::|        <-----------------[10]
  |     / / |:  | |   | |          |:::::::|          | |   | |
  |      /  |:  | |   | |          |::::<-----------------------------[13]
  |     /  /|:  | |   | |          |:::::::|          | |   | |
  |    /  / |:  | |   | |          ':::::::'          | |   | |
  |  _/  / /:~: | |   | ':           ''~''           :' |   | |
  |  |  / / ~.. | |   |: ':                         :' :|   | |
  |->| / /   :  | |   :::  '.                     .' <----------------[11]
  |  |/ / ^   ~\|  \  ::::.  '.                 .'  .::::  /  |
  |  ~   /|\    |   \_::::::.  '.             .'  .::::::_/   |
  |_______|     |      \::::::.  '.         .'  .:::<-----------------[6]
                |_________\:::::.. '~.....~' ..:::::/_________|
                |          \::::::::.......::::::::/          |
                |           ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~           |
                '.                                           .'
                 '.                                         .'
                  '.                                       .'
                   ':.                                   .:'
                    '::.                               .::'
                      '::..                         ..::'
                        ':::..                   ..:::'
                          '::::::...        ..::::::'
    [14]------------------> ':____:::::::::::____:' <-----------------[14]
                              '''::::_____::::'''
                                     ~~~~~

B. The Plutonium Bomb

Gravity Bomb – Implosion Model

 

                        [1] - Tail Cone
                        [2] - Stabilizing Tail Fins
                        [3] - Air Pressure Detonator
                        [4] - Air Inlet Tube(s)
                        [5] - Altimeter/Pressure Sensors
                        [6] - Electronic Conduits & Fusing Circuits
                        [7] - Lead Shield Container
                        [8] - Neutron Deflector (U-238)
                        [9] - Conventional Explosive Charge(s)
                       [10] - Plutonium (Pu-239)
                       [11] - Receptacle for Beryllium/Polonium mixture
                              to facilitate atomic detonation reaction.
                       [12] - Fuses (inserted to arm bomb)


                                      /\
                                     /  \ <---------------------------[1]
                                    /    \
                  _________________/______\_________________
                 | :      ||:      ~      ~               : |
     [2]-------> | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :      ||:                             : |
                 | :______||:_____________________________: |
                 |/_______||/______________________________\|
                  \       ~\       | :          |:|         /
                   \       |\      | :          |:|        /
                    \      | \     | :__________|:|       /
                     \     |:_\    | :__________\:|      /
                      \    |___\   |______________|     /
                       \  |     \ |~               \   /
                        \|_______\|_________________\_/
                        |_____________________________|
                        /                             \
                       /                               \
                      /                                 \
                     /          _______________          \
                    /       ___/               \___       \
                   /____ __/                       \__ ____\
     [3]_______________________________               \ ___|
                   / __/               \               \__ \
                  / /                  \/                 \ \
                 / /              ___________              \ \
                / /            __/___________\__            \ \
              ./ /__  ___     /=================\     ___  __\ \.
     [4]-------> ___||___|====|[[[[[|||||||]]]]]|====|___||___ <------[4]
            /  /              |=o=o=o=o=o=o=o=o=| <-------------------[5]
           .' /                \_______ _______/                \ '.
           :  |___                    |*|                    ___|  :
          .'  |   \_________________  |*|  _________________/   |  '.
          :   |   ___________   ___ \ |*| / ___   ___________   |   :
          :   |__/           \ /   \_\\*//_/   \ /           \__|   :
          :   |______________:|:____:: **::****:|:********\ <---------[6]
         .'  /:|||||||||||||''|;..:::::::::::..;|''|||||||*|||||:\  '.
     [7]----------> ||||||' .:::;~|~~~___~~~|~;:::. '|||||*|| <-------[7]
         :   |:|||||||||' .::'\ ..:::::::::::.. /'::. '|||*|||||:|   :
         :   |:|||||||' .::' .:::''~~     ~~'':::. '::. '|\***\|:|   :
         :   |:|||||' .::\ .::''\ |   [9]   | /''::: /::. '|||*|:|   :
     [8]------------>::' .::'    \|_________|/    '::: '::. '|* <-----[6]
         '.  \:||' .::' ::'\ [9] .     .     . [9] /::: '::.  *|:/  .'
          :   \:' :::'.::'  \  .               .  /  '::.'::: *:/   :
          :    | .::'.::'____\    [10] . [10]    /____'::.'::.*|    :
          :    | :::~:::     |       . . .       |     :::~:::*|    :
          :    | ::: ::  [9] | .   . ..:.. .   . | [9]  :: :::*|    :
          :    \ ::: ::      |       . :\_____________________________[11]
          '.    \':: ::: ____|     .   .   .     |____ ::: ::'/    .'
           :     \:;~'::.    / .  [10]   [10]  . \    .::'~::/     :
           '.     \:. '::.  /    .     .     .    \  .::' .:/     .'
            :      \:. ':::/ [9]   _________   [9] \:::' .:/      :
            '.      \::. ':::.   /|         |\   .:::' .::/      .'
             :       ~~\:/ ':::./ |   [9]   | \.:::' \:/~~       :
             ':=========\::. '::::...     ...::::' .::/=========:'
              ':         ~\::./ ''':::::::::''' \.::/~         :'
               '.          ~~~~~~\|   ~~~   |/~~~~~~          .'
                '.                \:::...:::/                .'
                 '.                ~~~~~~~~~                .'
                  '.                                       .'
                   ':.                                   .:'
                    '::.                               .::'
                      '::..                         ..::'
                        ':::..                   ..:::'
                          '::::::...        ..::::::'
    [12]------------------> ':____:::::::::::____:' <-----------------[12]
                              '''::::_____::::'''
                                     ~~~~~

 


See also:

 


 

The Nation, June 19, 2000

STAR WARS II: HERE WE GO AGAIN

by William D. Hartung and Michelle Ciarrocca

 

If you stopped worrying about the bomb when the cold war ended, you were probably surprised to learn that two of the hot-button issues of the eighties — arms control and missile defense — will top the agenda at the Clinton/Putin summit on June 4-5 [2000]. A central issue in Moscow will be how to reconcile Russian President Vladimir Putin’s proposal for deep cuts in US and Russian nuclear arsenals with the Clinton Administration’s fixation on developing a National Missile Defense (NMD) system.    …

The mere pursuit of an NMD system could pose the most serious threat to international peace and stability since the height of the cold war. Russian President Putin has emphatically stated that any US move to withdraw from the ABM treaty will lead Moscow to treat all existing US/Russian arms agreements as null and void.    …

There is one final element distorting the NMD testing program: corporate greed. The major corporate players in the NMD testing program — Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Raytheon — all have serious and direct conflicts of interest, since the results of the tests they are helping to carry out will determine whether they start reaping multibillion-dollar missile defense contracts over the next few years. … If Boeing is able to orchestrate a series of seemingly credible tests, it stands to make billions of dollars in production contracts for decades to come.    …

Click here for the full story.

 

 

High-Energy Weapons in the New Millenium

Purveyor of All Your Weapons of Mass Destruction Needs. Extensive resources and information concerning all aspects of Nuclear Weapons. Photo gallery, Links,… 
Optimal: 1024×768, 16m colors, N4.x 

 
Purveyor of All Your Weapons of Mass Destruction Needs


THIS MONTH in the NUCLEAR AGE 
SEPTEMBER
  5, 1966: A partial core melt occurs due to failure of the cooling system at the Enrico Fermi reactor near Detroit, Michigan, USA. 

  6, 1979: Operation Quicksilver Hearts detonation destroys Transom device that did not detonate on 5-10-1978 at NTS, Nevada, USA. 

  21, 1955: The Soviet Union detonates its first underwater nuclear device. 

  30, 1999: A criticality accident at a small fuel fabrication facility at Tokai-mura, Japan, kills two and irradiates dozens more. 

  1987: A junk dealer in Goiania, Brazil, removes a cesium-137 source from a radiotherapy unit. Townspeople applied the glowing substance to their faces and bodies; fifty-four are hospitalized, four die. 
This Month’s Quote: 
“A thermonuclear war cannot be considered a continuation of politics by other means. It would be a means to universal suicide.”     –Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov

The Doomsday Clock stands 

at 7 Minutes to Midnight
The Annihilation Poll
Do you think nuclear weapons will be used in your lifetime?

                   Select Answer                                                                                           Yes                                                                                           Probably                                                                                           Maybe                                                                                           No                                                                                           Unsure                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

Annihilation Enterprises’ Pages 



U.S. Nuclear Weapons: 
Did You Get Your Money’s Worth?
Cost of the Manhattan Project (through August 1945): $20 billion 
Current cost of nuclear weapons activities, 1995: $33 billion 

Cost of nuclear testing in 1985 (16 tests): $825 million 

Cost of testing in 1995 (O tests): $410 million 

Total number of U.S.-built nuclear warheads and bombs, 1945-present:70,000 

Total number of nuclear weapons used in war: 2 

Total number of nuclear bombers built, 1945-present: more than 4,000 

Total number of nuclear missiles built, 1951-present: 67,500 

Total land area occupied by Defense and Energy Department nuclear weapons installations: 12.603 square miles 

Total combined land area of Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia:11,834 square miles 

Number of nuclear tests conducted in Nevada: 935

Number of nuclear tests conducted in the Pacific: 106 

Number of Pacific islands still contaminated: 8-26 

Number of Pacific islands totally vaporized: 1 

Number of U.S. nuclear bombs lost in accidents and never recovered: 11 

Cost of the nuclear-propelled aircraft program: $6 billion 

Number of hangars built for nuclear-propelled aircraft: 1 

Number of nuclear-propelled aircraft built: 0 

Number of secret facilities built for presidential use during and after a nuclear war: more than 75 

Currency stored until 1988 in Culpeper, Virginia, by the Federal Reserve to be used after a nuclear war: more than $2 trillion 

Minimum number of pages still classified as secret by the Energy Department:280 million 

Estimated total cost of nuclear weapons and infrastructure, 1940-1995: $3.9 trillion

 

All figures converted to fiscal 1995 dollars. Adapted from “50 Facts About U.S. Nuclear Weapons,” by the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Cost Study Project

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists   November/December 1995

The
Library
of
 
Armageddon 
& Cold War Museum
 

 

High-Energy Weapons in the New Millenium

In the beginning, about 50 years ago, a great and terrible genie was loosed upon the world in the form of the first nuclear bomb. In its wake, two others were spawned, whose destinies lay over the populations of an already defeated foe. 

In the aftermath, an arms race as unprecedented in its technological impetus as its sheer scale ensued; with only a handful of players, the “Nuclear Club” was dominated by by two members, who were by necessity ideological opposites. The next forty years saw the power of nuclear weapons grow exponentially, and their numbers grow to nearly seventy thousand. 

Seventy thousand nuclear weapons, most on hair-trigger alert, some mere minutes from their targets, with a combined explosive force equating out to nearly 3 tons of high explosive for every man, woman, and child on the planet. 

The doctrine which evolved from possession of nuclear weapons — Mutually Assured Destruction, or MAD — is an incredible exercise in folly: to build up a formidable but generally equal arsenal of ostensibly defensive weapons into a system which if ever called upon, must function perfectly, yet to function perfectly, must never be used. 

Such is the theory of deterrence. 

Now, five decades later, those numbers have declined, and the world is a far different — albeit still dangerous — place. The two main adversaries have formed a wary friendship, and have even even shared some of their most closely guarded secrets. Most of the weapons factories are silent now, some of those that remain are dismantling the warheads they once built. 

But there are still dangers — serious ones — to be addressed: the so-called “rogue states,” who still seek to acquire nuclear weapons and its technologies; and previously “threshold” states, who have now crossed over into declared possessors of nuclear weapons. There is also the frighteningly real prospect of a complete weapon falling into the hands of terrorists or a hostile government who are willing to use it; or, of a radiological bomb, which disperses highly radioactive material over a large area, rendering it uninhabitable for years; or an attack on a nuclear reactor. 

There are also new dangers from old sources: in a step backward, the United States has recently withdrawn from the AntiBallistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972 — declaring it “inconsistent with” its needs — so it can go forward with its Missile Defense System, which is based on technologies which aren’t expected to exist for years or even decades. Some very hard-learned lessons have been easily forgotten — or ignored. 

We don’t need Missile Defense, we don’t need Stockpile Stewardship, we don’t need 5000 nuclear weapons. We don’t need nuclear weapons at all. 

Unfortunately, there must always be a small number available, for possible use against earth-crossing asteroids. At present, these are the only plausible method of altering ones course. But at the maximum, some tens of low-yeild, disassembled warheads with their parts stored in geographically separated locations are all thet are required. 

The untold cost in money, resources and lives spent to develop, build, and maintain these instruments of genocide is but a small part of the price mankind — and indeed the planet — has, is, and will have to pay. The radioactive burden on the environment from decades of testsaccidents, leaks, and plain irresponsible carelessness and negligence is planetwide, and can only be described as a wonton crime against the entire biosphere. 

We have embarked upon the largest, most far-reaching biological experiment ever, one which is global in nature and cannot be controlled: thealteration of genetic material due to ionizing radiation. Not a single person alive has escaped exposure, and while many if not most, effects may not manifest themselves for generations, and will likely not be directly attributable to any specific cause, they are far too real, and they will happen. 

Yes, the Nuclear Genie is out of its bottle, for now and evermore, and while that knowledge cannot be unlearned, perhaps mankind will someday learn instead a spirit of tolerance and cooperation, and indeed coexistence with one another. 

Nuclear weapons are a fascinating subject. From the subatomic-scale reactions to the mega explosions; the political, economic, social, and environmental aspects; or the terrible beauty of a multimegaton detonation holds one awestruck… 

We may not realize it, because the effects are either inattributable or intangible, but nuclear weapons affect every single one of us every single day of our lives; isn’t it about time we did something about them?

Nuclear Disasters Worldwide Since 1943 
 
                        

                                   
Last Update: 1Sep03
© 2002 by Dan Younker 

 
 
 
 
 

SSC recruitment 2013 for LDC and DEO

SSC recruitment 2013 for LDC and DEO jobs Apply online application http://www.ssc.nic.in

 
SSC released a recruitment notification for the LDC and DEO jobsthrough online application http://www.ssc.nic.in

  1. Staff Selection Commission SSC has released a recruitment notification for the LDC and DEO jobs through online application. This recruitment details are officially published in website http://www.ssc.nic.in. 
  2. Candidates who are interested for this recruitment of SSC jobs of LDC and DEO (Lower division clerk) LDC and (Data entry operator) DEOthey must follow official website http://www.ssc.nic.in. Candidates required to apply for this SSC jobs they apply through online application.
  3. SSC conducted a combined higher secondary level examination.Candidates apply online application before 16.08.2013.
Candidates see below detailed information of recruitment.
 
Name of the post: LDC and DEO
Name of the post: Staff Selection Commission SSC
 
Age limit: Candidates must have age between 18-27 years as on 01.08.2013.
 
Educational Qualifications: Candidates must have passed 12th standard from recognized board or university.
 
Fee: Candidates have to pay 100/- through CRFS only this is available all counters of all departmental post offices of country. These stamp should be pasted on the application form. Candidates pay the fee through the challan of SBI and SBI net banking.
 
Selection process: Candidates selection is based on the written test, skill test for DEO and type test for LDC.
 
How to apply: Candidates who want to apply this recruitment of SSC  LDC and DEO jobs they have to apply through offline/online application. Candidates must download application form the website for offline method. For online application candidates go to official website http://www.ssc.nic.in and click apply online and fill the  application. Last date for submission of online application 16.08.2013. Candidates fill application two parts part -I and part -II. Last date for part – I 14.08.2013 and for part – II 16.08.2013.
 
Candidates must visit http://www.ssc.nic.in for the recruitment of SSC LDC and DEO jobs details and online application form.
 
Last date submission of application: 16.08.2013
Last date for flung areas : 23.08.2013.
 
 

 

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